Glossary

BHO

BHO stands for butane hash oil and is a plant extract that's made by dissolving cannabis in butane. The resulting product has very high THC levels and usually has a tar-like consistency. BHO can also be referred to as honey oil, “dabs” or “dabbing,” wax, or shatter.

 

Bud

Bud is the actual flower of the cannabis plant. This is the part of the plant that is harvested and used for recreational or medicinal purposes. (Also referred to as flower, ganja, marijuana, weed, chronic, etc.)

 

Calyx

A calyx can look like a collection of leaves, but a calyx is what actually comprises the female flower. Found mostly under the "sugar leaf", calyxes look like tear shaped nodes and come in many shapes, colors or sizes. Calyxes usually contain high concentrations of trichomes.

 

Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids are the chemical compounds unique to cannabis that act upon the human body’s cannabinoid receptors, producing various effects. Marijuana’s most well-known cannabanoid is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) due to the fact that it is the most abundant, and also because it produces the psychoactive effects (or the “high”) that drives the plant’s recreational use. There are over 85 known cannabinoids that are present in marijuana.

 

Cannabis

Cannabis is a plant genus that produces three putative species of flowering plants: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica are used to produce both recreational and medical marijuana. Cannabis ruderalis is rarely farmed due to its naturally low THC content and small stature, but there is some cross-breeding thanks to ruderalis’s unique ability to auto-flower rather than mature based on light.

 

CBD

CBD is the abbreviation for cannabidiol, one of the at least 85 cannabinoids found in cannabis. CBD has gained support for its use without the psychoactive effects (the “high” or “stoned” feeling)  that's usually associated with THC. This specific cannabinoid is also known for its role in pain relief, anti-anxiety, and its analgesic effects.

 

Cola

A "cola" refers to a bud site where female flowers bloom. The main cola is produced at the very top of the plant where it receives the most light and smaller colas form on the bud sites below. There are a number of techniques to increase the amount of "main colas", like topping, low stress training, or screen of green (ScrOG).

 

Concentrates

Concentrates are a potent consolidation of cannabinoids that are made by dissolving marijuana in its plant form into a solvent. The resulting product has very high THC levels that can produce varying products ranging from thick sticky oils (BHO), to moldable goo (budder/wax), to resinous bits (shatter). Referred to by a variety of slang terms, the classification of concentrates is often dependent on the manufacturing method and the consistency of the final product.

 

Dabs

A dab is a way of smoking a concentrate. The most common form of taking a dab would be by heating up a nail (a quartz castle, titanium, ceramic, glass, etc.) on an oil rig with a propane or butane torch and then essentially "dabbing" the concentrate onto the heated nail and inhaling. This is one of a couple ways to smoke concentrates which require a higher temperature to vaporize the extract.

 

Edibles

"Edibles" are marijuana infused edible items. There are almost every kind of edible food available, except for dairy product and items requiring refrigeration. (WAC 314-55-077 7a-f) Edibles containing marijuana cannot contain more than 10mg per serving. The time between ingestion and the product taking effect will vary but can take up to four hours. Edibles play off of your body chemistry, making this a different experience for everyone just like smoking.

 

Feminized

Feminized cannabis seeds are selectively bred to not produce a male chromosome, guaranteeing that flowers the plant produces are female. Female plants are the producers of buds containing the cannabinoids sought out by marijuana consumers.

 

Flowering Time

Flowering times refer to the time it takes to fully mature flowers on a female plant, typically after its vegetative state where it has simply been growing in size and not maturing its flowers. Flowering time is determined by the amount of time the plant spends exposed to the sun in one day. Plants switch from a vegetative state to a flowering state when the amount of time exposed to the sun drops below 12 hours, mimicking the season of fall in nature. The only cannabis plant that is an exception to this rule is the ruderalis species that automatically flowers.

 

Flowers

Flowers refer to the buds that are grown on the plant. Just like regular flowers, the bud is the reproductive organ on a cannabis plant. When a female plant has fully matured and HAS NOT come in contact with pollen from a male plant, it will have produced a flower covered in trichomes that is then harvested and cured for inhalation. If a plant does come in contact with pollen, it will produce seeds. 

 

Hash/Hashish

Hash is derived by processing the trichomes that are found on the cannabis flowers.  There are a couple different ways to make hash, the most basic being simple finger hash. You will not find finger hash in a recreational marijuana store, it's something you'd make on your own.  Finger hash is made when you rub buds in your hands to collect the keif and oils on your skin, then you roll it into a ball of smokable cannabis material. Another more common form of hash that is available in most recreational stores is Bubble Hash. Bubble hash is made when you stir cannabis material in an extremely cold ice bath to freeze and break off the trichomes. The weed/ice water mixture is then run through a set of 3-5 increasingly fine filters. The first filter collects the waste plant material and the other screens collect the more isolated trichomes. Once the isolated trichomes are dried, they're considered bubble hash.

 

Hash Oil

Unlike Hash or Hashish, Hash Oil is processed with chemicals. Cannabis trichomes do not dissolve in water, They are only soluble in alcohols and lipids. A closed loop system is used with volatile chemicals such as butane or propane. The solvents are recollected to be used again.

 

Hemp

Hemp is derived from the fibers in a male cannabis plant's stem. Hemp can be used to make rope, fabric, paper, beauty products and more. Hemp has no value as a recreational cannabis plant as it contains trace amounts of cannabinoids, although it still remains federally illegal.

 

Hybrid

A hybrid is a genetic cross between one or more cannabis strains. Just like any kind of genetic breeding, crossing a plant with another kind of plant is intended to breed specific desired traits of multiple  plants into one plant. Some plants are unintentional crosses which happen by putting a female and male plant of a different strain in the same room.

 

Hydroponics

Hydroponics is the process of growing without soil, instead they grow with sand, gravel, or water. During hydroponic growing, nutrients are delivered to the plant through solutions that have been added to water. This method of growing allows the for more control of the nutrient intake and stability of the plant.

 

Indica

Indica flowers have a more relaxing and evening-oriented effect than its sativa counterpart. Indicas deliver more of a body high and less of a cerebral effect. Indicas are known to help with body and muscle pain, relieve headaches, spasms, anxiety and stress. Indica plants tend to grow shorter and wider than the sativa plants. 

 

Kief

sometimes transliterated as keef or kif, refers to the resinous trichomes of cannabis that may accumulate in containers or be sifted from loose, dry cannabis flower with a mesh screen or sieve.

 

Kush

Kush is a specific subset of strains of Cannabis indica. There is debate over the true origin of this strain, ranging from Afghanistan, Northern Pakistan, or Northwestern India.

 

Landrace

A landrace is a local variety of cannabis that has adapted to the environment of its geographic location.

 

Marijuana

Marijuana is the general term for the female cannabis flowers. Marijuana contains a high percentage of cannabinoids that usually have psychoactive properties.

 

Phenotype

This is the "outward, physical manifestation" of the plant. These are the physical parts, the sum of the atoms, molecules, macromolecules, cells, structures, metabolism, energy utilization, tissues, organs, reflexes and behaviors; anything that is part of the observable structure, function or behavior of a living organism.

 

Genotype

This is the "internally coded, inheritable information" carried by all living organisms. This stored information is used as a "blueprint" or set of instructions for building and maintaining a living creature. These instructions are found within almost all cells (the "internal" part), they are written in a coded language (the genetic code), they are copied at the time of cell division or reproduction and are passed from one generation to the next ("inheritable"). These instructions are intimately involved with all aspects of the life of a cell or an organism. They control everything from the formation of protein macromolecules, to the regulation of metabolism and synthesis.

 

Pistils

Coming out from the calyxes, pistils look like tiny orange hairs. These hairs serve to collect pollen from male plants. Pistils start out white and progressively turn amber/red over the course of maturation. Pistils play an important role in reproduction, but add little to the flavor or smell.

 

Pre-Roll

A pre-roll is simply a pre-rolled joint or marijuana cigarette.

 

Ruderalis

The term ruderalis comes from the root word ruderal. A ruderal species is known to grow in spite of it's environment. Cannabis ruderalis is native to some areas in Asia, Central/Eastern Europe, and Russia, where the hemp plant had started to grow independently, adapting to the extreme environments found in these climates. Ruderalis has long been considered it's own type of cannabis, but lately it's been crossed with other sativa or indica plants because of it's ability to auto-flower. However, ruderalis produces only trace amounts of cannabinoids.

 

Sativa

Sativa flowers are much more cerebral and motivating than their relaxing indica counterparts. Sativas are usually felt more in the head and less in the body, providing more a day-time effect. Sativas tend to grow taller and have longer and thinner leaves than indicas.

 

Shatter

Shatter refers to a specific consistency of BHO that tends to be more stable and resembles a sheet of ice in texture.

 

Strain

A strain is a specific variety of the cannabis plant, also known as a cultivar. Strain names can be determined by the qualities of the plant, its promised effect or by its place of origin.

 

THC

THC is an abbreviation for tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. THC is the most abundant and most well known cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant. It is responsible for the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Cannabinoid receptors are concentrated in certain areas of the brain and are associated with thinking, memory, pleasure, coordination and time perception. THC attaches to those receptors and activates them, which can alter the functionality of those certain areas of the brain.

 

Tincture

Tincture refers to a liquid, usually alcohol or sugar based, that is infused with cannabinoids. Most tinctures are flavored and can be used as a sublingual (under the tongue) or an edible form. Effects can be felt within minutes if administered sublingually. Tinctures can also be mixed into a drink, but in these cases effects will take longer because the cannabinoids will be absorbed by the digestive system.

 

Topical

Topical products are those that deliver specific cannabinoids through the skin, termed percutaneous absorption. These products include lotions, salves, transdermal patches, and massage oils.

 

Trichome

Resin (or “kief” when dry) is secreted through translucent, mushroom-shaped glands found on the leaves, stems, and calyxes. Trichomes originally existed as a defense against predators or natural elements. However, they also produce aromatic oils called terpenes and cannabinoids like THC or CBD.

 

Terpenes

Secreted in the same glands that produce cannabinoids like THC and CBD, terpenes are the pungent oils that imbue cannabis varieties with distinctive flavors like citrus, mint, berries, and pine. Over 100 different terpenes have been identified in the cannabis plant, and every strain tends toward a unique terpene type and composition.

 

Vaporizer

Vaporizing is the inhalation of cannabis vapors through indirect combustion methods. Vaporizing is healthier than smoking since there is no smoke to inhale, but this method still produces near instant effects, without the often strong aromas of direct combustion (smoking).

 

Wax

Wax is a form of concentrate. This particular type of BHO is usually a kind of honeycomb/waxy texture.

 

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